Protein – part 1 by guest blogger Nicola Drabble.

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Protein is almost a buzz word in the sports world.  No matter which sport, I frequently get asked for a high protein diet to build muscle for strength and to lose fat. With all the information on the internet, media reports and peer/ coach influences, it is difficult for any athlete to make an informed decision about their protein intake.  I have realised that many people don’t really know the basics, so I’ve divided the protein section into 2 parts.  In part 1, I’ll discuss why protein is essential for heath and its importance in sports nutrition, and in part 2, I will discuss protein in endurance sports before, during and after exercise.

Why is protein important

Protein is an essential nutrient in the diet.  Proteins are responsible for the structure, functions and metabolism within the body.  It is therefore necessary for growth and reparation of damaged cells and tissues, for the maintenance of lean muscle, nutrient transportation, enzyme production and to synthesize hormones.

Proteins are often referred to as the building blocks in the body as they are made up of chains of amino acids.  The amount and type of amino acids in a protein vary.  Animal sources of protein – meat, fish, chicken, eggs, milk – contain all essential amino acids and are considered complete sources of protein, whereas plant proteins – nuts and pulses – lack some of the essential amino acids and are therefore classified as incomplete. Ideally a mixture of animal and plants sources of protein should be eaten at the same time. This ensures that a good range of amino acids are regularly obtained from the diet, which is important as amino acids cannot be stored in the body, therefore regular protein intake is essential.  Note: A vegetarian diet can provide all of the necessary amino acids, though care has to be taken to have a variety of non-animal sources to ensure all the amino acids are obtained.

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Protein in sports nutrition

It is a misconception that the more protein you eat, the more muscle you will gain.  Muscle is built/ gained through a combination of resistant training (increasing the work load of the muscle) and consuming a diet that contains enough energy and carbohydrate.  If an athlete does not consume sufficient carbohydrate to meet his/ her energy requirements, the protein will be used as an energy source instead of being used to build muscle and repair tissue.

Vast research is being done to measure the protein requirements of athletes.  The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN), have concluded that individuals engaged in regular exercise training require more dietary protein than sedentary individuals.  Obviously, protein requirements will vary depending on the sport i.e. a body builder vs endurance athlete.  Current research recommends that endurance athletes do have slightly higher protein requirements than the general sedentary population – 1.2-1.4g per kg body weight per day as opposed to 0.8-1.0g per kg bodyweight per day.  This is to cover a small proportion of the energy costs of their training and to assist in the repair and recovery process after exercise.

As an athlete, it is important to meet your daily protein requirements, as well as to ensure that the protein is of high quality.  Skinless chicken, lean meat, fish, eggs and fat free/ low fat milk are all high quality proteins which are also low in fat.  Timing of protein intake is also important as it can lead to faster recovery times and improved adaptation after training. This is particularly true for triathletes doing brick training sessions and will be discussed in detail in part 2.

 nicola drabble

Website:  www.nicoladrabble.co.za
Facebook – Nicola Drabble – Registered Dietitian
Twitter – @NicolaDrabbleRD

References:

Campbell B et al.  International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: protein and exercise.  Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2010, 7:7

Jeukendrup, AE.  Nutrition for endurance sports: Marathon, triathlon, and road cycling Journal of Sports Sciences, 2011; 29(S1): S91–S99.

Jeukendrup, AE et al. Nutritional Considerations in Triathlon. Review Article. Sports Medicine 2005; 35 (2): 163-181.

Kreider et al. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review:  research & recommendations.  Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2010, 7:7

Phillips, S.M., & Van Loon, Luc. J.C. (2011). Dietary protein for athletes: From requirements to optimum adaptation. J Sport Sciences, 29(S1), S29-S38.

Potgieter, S.  Sport nutrition: A review of the latest guidelines for exercise and sport nutrition from the American College of Sport Nutrition, the International Olympic Committee and the International Society for Sports Nutrition.  South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2013; 26(1):6-16.

British Dietetic Association: Food Facts. www.bda.uk.com

Australian Institute of Sports: www.ausport.gov.au

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2 Responses to Protein – part 1 by guest blogger Nicola Drabble.

  1. Greg Judin says:

    Look forward to the next part, Nicola.

    One quandary that I have found myself in for a long time relates to whether the estimate of 1.2 – 1.4g of protein per kilogram of body weight refers only to bioavailable protein or to all ingested protein. So, should I take into account the protein content of (for example) broccoli even though this is not nearly as bioavailable for use by the human body as the protein from, say, an egg?

    Would love to hear your expert opinion on this matter.

  2. Hi Greg,

    The nutritional value of a protein depends if it provides the essential amino acids that the body needs to build muscle. Generally proteins from animals sources such as meat, chicken, fish, eggs and dairy are good sources of essential amino acids and are considered complete proteins. Vegetarian sources of protein – pulses, lentils and nuts, as well as carbohydrate foods – bread, pasta, rice and cereals, also contribute significant amounts of protein to the overall diet. These protein sources however are incomplete and are missing some important amino acids. By mixing these incomplete proteins together i.e. having baked beans on toast will ensure these amino acid requirements are met.

    So, to answer your question, when calculating protein requirements, the entire meal must be considered. Generally a portion of fruit or vegetable (tennis ball size) will contain about 1g of protein and will still be calculated and included in the athletes protein requirements. It is therefore, very important that athletes consume foods from all food groups to ensure all nutritional requirements are met.

    Hope this makes sense! Nicola

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